Feast Of Tabernacles Holiday Article Bookmarks
Sukkah is the Hebrew term for the building that is constructed for this holiday. Sukkot(h) is the Hebrew name of the holiday Feast of Tabernacles. It is usually translated as booth or small hut. To tabernacle with someone is to dwell with them. God tabernacled with the Jews as they wandered in the desert for 40 years. During those 40 years the Israelites lived in simple booths in order to make following God, who manifested Himself as a cloud by day and a pillar of fire by night easy.
Sukkot is the plural of Sukkah (more than one hut or booth) and sometimes the holiday is referred to as Sukkot. It is also known as the Feast, Feast of Tabernacles, Feast of our Rejoicing, the Season of our Rejoicing,the Season of our Joy, and He-Hag (the Holiday). It is sometimes referred to as the Feast of Ingathering (Exodus 23:16). This name reflects the final harvest of the year attributed of the holiday. Sometimes it is also referred to by the Hebrew name Shemhatenu.
The Feast of Tabernacles has an agricultural meaning, because it reminds us of how the farm laborers in ancient days lived as they worked to bring in the harvest. There is also a historical meaning, as the holiday commemorates the forty-year period during which the children of Israel were wandering in the desert, living in temporary shelter. There is also a Messianic meaning in which we find fulfillment in our Messiah.(1)
Lev. 23:33-44; Num. 29:12-39; Deuteronomy 16:13-15; Neh. 8:14; Zec.14:16-19; Heb.2:2; 2:5; John 7:2-52; (Possibly Revelation 7:9).
The observance of Sukkot is the 15th-21st of Tishri (September/October). Most people consider it an eight-day holiday. The first six days are known as Sukkot. The seventh day takes upon itself a new name knows as Hoshana Rabba. The eighth day is known as Shemini Atzeret. In Israel, the eighth day is also Simchat Torah. Outside of Israel, the next day after the eight days is commonly observed as Simchat Torah.
Many Jews all over the world begin constructing small huts or booths (Sukkot) starting at the end of the Yom Kippur holiday. By the time Feast of Tabernacles begins five days later, they are able to spend time or dwell in these booths. Sukkot are constructed with a very temporary theme in mind and are to be crudely built, sometimes with branches for roofs. On a clear night, a person can sit inside the Sukkah and look through the sparsely placed branches to the stars and be reminded of the promise God told Abraham that his descendants would be as numerous as the stars in the heavens (Genesis 26:4). They stay erected for the entire eight days of the holiday. It is considered a good deed or an obligation to eat inside of a Sukkah at least one time during the holiday. Sometimes, if weather permits, (most people leave room in the roof to allow for rain to come in) people will spend the night inside of a Sukkah.
The symbolism associated with the Sukkah is one that is intended to remind us of being homeless, the feeling of living somewhere on a temporary basis. It should serve as a reminder to us not to become over confident with our wealth or influence. It should remind us that we need to look to God for our provisions, not man. It should also remind us that this earth is not our permanent home.
It is also symbolic of the protection that the Jews received from God in the desert after they were freed from bondage in Egypt (Lev. 23:43). It should remind us that our survival is dependant upon God. In Talmudic times, the Sukkah also assumed the symbolism of joy and beauty. That's why we are told to decorate the Sukkah and make it beautiful (Sukkah 28b).(2)
It is a custom now to relax in the Sukkah. In Israel, you can find these Sukkot being built on rooftops and balconies as well as in back yards. In the United States, most people who build one do it in their back yard. For those who don't want to build a Sukkah or are unable,they are welcome to use a friends or the one at the Synagogue or Temple in order to observe the holiday and traditions associated with it.
Sukkot is also considered a harvest festival. One reason is because at harvest time something resembling a Sukkah would be built near the field that the crop pickers were working. This became a temporary place of refuge for them from the sun and even a place to sleep when necessary. The Sukkah is, therefore, symbolic of protection and peace. It also became the one time of the year when most farmers could relax since the crops were just harvested, and it was still too early to plant the next crop.
Usually, there is no work on the first day of the Feast of Tabernacles. This day is observed similar to the regular weekly Sabbath. There is a change in the liturgy specific to the holiday.
The first day of the month of Tishri is considered a Sabbath (Rosh Hashanah) Lev. 23:23-25. Passover, Yom Kippur, and the Feast of Tabernacles also have declared days of rest as part of their observance.
The Feast of Tabernacles is also considered a time of judgment where Israel is judged for water (Rosh Hashanah 1:2).
There developed over time a difference in some of the customs between The Ashkenazic Jews and the Sephardic Jews. To see the differences please read Different Sukkot Customs.
One of the most holy events held in the Temple was the "Holy Assembly of Hakhel." This assembly was held every seven years on the Feast of Tabernacles, after the "Smitah" year was finished ("Smitah" is the sabbatical year of the ground, when fields are left fallow every seventh year). It was a very exciting and holy event. Hundreds of thousands pilgrims, along with all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, gathered on the Temple Mount and inside the Temple. They would listen to the High Priest as he read the Commandments of G-d from the book of Deuteronomy, in the Holy Torah. The event of "Hakhel" was one of the most exciting events during the times the Temple stood. Every one could feel the presence of the G-d of Israel so strongly, just as if G-d Himself was speaking to His beloved people Israel.(3)
According to the first tradition, the Sukkah commemorates the first booth built by Abraham when he greeted the three angels (Bamidbar Rabba 14). It was a joyous occasion.
The second tradition describes the Sukkah ceremony as a commemoration of the Sukkah built by Jacob after he fled from Labon (Gen. 33:17). That transpired at the time that he was a homeless wanderer.(2)
Some consider Jacob the founder of the festival of Sukkah (23:6).
There is a tradition that Jacob (name changed to Israel) is believed to have been born and buried on the fifteenth of Tishri, the date of Feast of Tabernacles.
It is interesting that according to the Ecclesiastical calendar of the Book of Jubilees all of the Pilgrimage festivals begin on the fifteenth of the month.
According to the Zohar, there are heavenly guests that visit the Sukkah. The first night's guest is Abraham (Zohar Vayikra 103). A special prayer known as ushpizin (Invitation to the special holy guest) is said. This is a Kabbalistic practice.
It is believed that Abraham had a Sukkah to entertain his heavenly guests. Abraham's Sukkah is now known as the Sukkah of Sodom, because one of Abraham's visiting angels was entrusted with a rescue mission in Sodom.(2)
There is even talk of a Sukkah in heaven (Pesikta D'rav Kahana 29).
It is a wonderful blessing to be able to see God's creation crying out with His glory day and night. When building the roof, there are certain rules to follow. The most important is to be able to see through the material you use for the roof. The roof should not let in more sunshine than shadow during the day. Corn stocks and cat tails are popular. Other plants can be used, but they must be cut from their roots so you can enjoy the view of the sky from inside the Sukkah. For this reason, if it is raining, the obligation to eat inside of the Sukkah is removed.
The Sukkah should be a minimum of four feet long and four feet high. It must be at least five feet high and no more than thirty feet high. It should have at least three sides to it.
The Sukkah must be rebuilt every year. It should not be left standing year after year.
Someone who is an expert at building a Sukkah is known as a "maven."
When it comes time to decorate the Sukkah, it is common to see things that grow in Israel hanging from the roof. Decorations should only be used for the Sukkah and nothing else during the holiday. (Do not eat the fruit until the holiday is over).
It is permitted to build a Sukkah on a wagon or other portable device. This way the Sukkah can be brought to those who are otherwise unable to participate in the holiday.
After Simchat Torah is over, the Sukkah can be disassembled and stored until next year.
Many people believe that the common activities of life, when they occur inside of a Sukkah, become holy acts.(4)
Nothing should be in between the roof of the Sukkah and the sky.
A fascinating and mysterious pattern emerges from the seemingly endless list of sacrifices. No matter how the offerings are grouped or counted, their number always remains divisible by the number seven. During the week are offered 70 bullocks, 14 rams, and 98 lambs-altogether 182 sacrifices (26x7), to which must be added 336 (48x7) tenths of ephahs of flour for the meal offering. As compared with the feast of unleavened bread, the number of rams and lambs is double, whereas that of the bullocks is fivefold (14 during Passover week, 5x14 during that of Tabernacles).(5)
It was no coincidence that this seven-day holiday, which took place in the height of the seventh month, had the perfect number, seven, imprinted on its sacrifices. It was by divine design that the final holiday of the Jewish religious year bore on its sacrifices the seal of God's perfect approval.(5)
Some believe the 70 bullocks sacrificed represented the 70 nations of the world. This would mean that Israel was trying to intercede for the world, not just herself. These offerings were then considered an offering for world peace. The Feast of Tabernacles along with the Feast of Weeks" (Pentecost) and The Feast of Unleavened Bread (Passover), was one of three "appointed yearly feasts" during which sacrifice must be offered in Jerusalem (Deut 16:16, 2 Chron. 8:13).(5)
Some have made it a custom to start the building process of the Sukkah as soon as Yom Kippur is over. This might be symbolically done by driving a tent stake into the ground. Sukkot is five days after Yom Kippur.
Sometimes, when people are feeling stressed out, they will pray to be enveloped in a protective Sukkot (Psalm 27:5).
A king who enjoys divine protection has his seat in a Sukkah, when he looses that protection, his Sukkah collapses (Amos 9:1).(2)
It is possible that the Sukkot holiday was suspended in the early Babylonian Diaspora days due to the loss of a national independence (Neh. 8:14).(2)
It is believed by some that in Zec.14:16, Zechariah was prophesying the recognition of the independence of Israel by the nations of the world. (Notice all the nations will someday celebrate the Feast of Tabernacles holiday.) This may become a worldwide Thanksgiving celebration.
There is reason to believe that during the time when the Temple stood, a total of 70 sacrifices were offered during the seven days of Sukkot which are celebrated in the Land of Israel (Tractate Sukkah 58b).
The Feast of Tabernacles may have been the holiday that was celebrated at the dedication of Solomon's Temple (1 Kings 8:1-3; 65-66).
Jeroboam may have tried to start his own Feast of Tabernacles holiday (1 Kings 12:32).
The Feast of Tabernacles completes the holy festivals in the seventh month. Some believe it completes an entire annual cycle of holidays.
An appropriate sign to hang up in a Sukkah is one that bears the message Baruch Haba that means "blessed be the one who comes" or welcome.
Crops gathered at the end of the harvest season were sometimes known as summer fruit (Amos 8:2).
Israel's Ministry of Tourism bills the Feast of Tabernacles as “the largest annual tourism event in Israel.”(6)
In some ways, the Feast of Tabernacles is considered an Exodus holiday.
This passage in Leviticus shows us that these two holidays are connected.
Lev.23:43;so your descendants will know that I had the Israelites live in booths when I brought them out of Egypt. I am the LORD your God.'" (NIV)
Both holidays are related to Israel's exodus from Egypt and are observed on the 15th of the month.
Passover marks the attainment of the end of bondage and the right of religious freedom. Sukkot marks the attainment of national and territorial independence (except from God), the essential ingredients of Sovereignty.(2)
After Sukkot is over, the palm branch or lulav (see Benching lulav and Etrog link below) is sometimes saved and used later in the year during Passover, to help with burning the bread found in the house during the search for leaven.
"The Sukkah is built after Yom Kippur. The Almighty sits in judgment on Rosh Hashanah. On Yom Kippur, He seals the verdict. If they were sentenced to go into exile, they build a Sukkah wherein they dwell and are thus exiled from their homes to the Sukkah. The Almighty deems it as if they had gone into exile to Babylonia" (Pesikta D'rav Kahona 28).(2)
Several Bible scholars believe the first Thanksgiving in America was based in part on Sukkot. The Pilgrims were familiar with the Bible and the Feast of Tabernacles. They were also thankful for God's protection in the new land. The first Thanksgiving holiday is reported to be in October (Sukkot is usually in this month) and have lasted for three days.(7)
There are four plants that are associated with the observance of Sukkot. The Hebrew name for these four plants is arbah minim (four species). Each species is different from the other and has its own special significance. The four consist of the lulav (palm branch); three sprags of hadasim (myrtle branches); two aravot (the willow branch); and the etrog (a Mediterranean citrus fruit). You can learn more about each plant's specific purpose in this holiday by going to Arbah Minim.
Jewish people are commanded to take these 4 plants and use them to "rejoice before the Lord." The four species are one citrus fruit (the Etrog), one palm branch, two willow branches, and three myrtle branches. The six branches are bound together and referred collectively as the lulav. The etrog is held separately. With these four species in hand, one recites a blessing and waves the species in all six directions (east, south, west, north, up, and down) symbolizing the fact that God is everywhere.
There is a Kabbalistic view that each of the four species is associated with the four letter name of God.
There is also a Talmudic view that observing this commandment can actually speed up the coming of the Messiah.(8)
The Four Species are also held during the Hallel Prayer (select prayers grouped together for the holidays - Psalm 113 - 118) in religious services, and are held during processions around the bimah (the pedestal where the Torah is read) each day during the holiday. These processions commemorate similar processions around the altar of the ancient Temple in Jerusalem. The processions are known as Hoshanahs, because while the procession is made, we recite a prayer with the refrain, "Hoshana!" (please save us!). On the seventh day of Sukkot, seven circuits are made. For this reason, the seventh day of Sukkot is known as Hoshanah Rabbah (the Great Hoshanah).It is considered a holiday in of itself.(9)
Lulav and Etrog are not biblical terms, they are Talmudic terms. Some do believe that Lev. 23:40 does refer to a lulav.
On Sukkot, there are special wave ceremonies performed. People hold the four species together, like a bouquet, and say a special blessing over them in the Sukkah or in the synagogue. This is sometimes known as Benching Lulav And Etrog. During this process, the lulav is waived or shaken in the air. This action should arouse joy and thanksgiving in our hearts.
Usually a person does not bench Lulav and Etrog on the Sabbath.(4)
Why was the etrog chosen to compliment the lulav? Read the Case For The Etrog.
A Lulav is a combination of a palm branch, 3 myrtle branches and two willow branches. An etrog is a Mediterranean citrus fruit that looks similar to a lemon.
The "lulav" was to remind Israel of the different stages of their wilderness journey, as represented by the different varieties of vegetation. The palm branches recalled the valleys and plains; the boughs of thick trees recalled the mountain heights; the willows were to remind Israel of the brooks from which God had given His people water to drink; and the etrog was to remind them of the fruits of the good land that the Lord had given them.(10)
There are several ways to see how the Messiah adds to this holiday.
We are told in John's Gospel, "The Word became flesh and dwelt (tabernacled) among us..." (John 1:14). God's presence came in the incarnate Messiah who was present with His people. He was Immanuel, Hebrew for "God with us."(11) The word "dwelt" here in the Greek means "tabernacled." When He became flesh, Jesus inhabited the temporary shelter of an earthly body, knowing He soon would be required to leave it. Why did He do it? So that we might find a home in Him - not a temporary shelter in the wilderness, but an eternal home in a Kingdom that abides forever.(1)
During prayer time for this holiday people cry out "please save" or save now" as part of the prayer liturgy. For believers in Messiah this prayer has already been answered: "Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and you will be saved" (Acts 16:31). The cry for salvation at Tabernacles is heard and answered through Jesus the Messiah, for He came to "save His people from their sins" (Matthew 1:21).(11)
Jesus preached during this holiday.
There are many ways that this festival points to Yeshua (Jesus). God gave the Israelites manna and water in the wilderness, Jesus is spiritual bread and water for all who believe in Him.(12)
Jesus said to them, “I am the bread of life; he who comes to Me will not hunger, and he who believes in Me will never thirst (John 6:35).
Paul taught that as the Jews wondered in the desert over those 40 years they all drank the same spiritual drink, for they were drinking from a spiritual rock which followed them; and the rock was Christ (1 Corinthians 10:4).
Yeshuah (Jesus) is the bread, the water, the light (John 8:12) and the man whose name is The Branch (Zechariah 6:12). In short, Sukkot is all about Him.(12)
There is also religious significance in the materials used for the Sukkah and lulav, which are symbolical. The Palm is an emblem of victory throughout the Scriptures. Consider Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem: "And many spread their clothes on the road, and others cut down leafy branches from the trees and spread them on the road" (Mark 11:8).(10)
We're also told that the multitude from the Tribulation will be "...standing before the throne and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, with palm branches in their hands, and crying out with a loud voice, saying, "Salvation belongs to our God who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb!" (Rev. 7:9-10).(10)
Another perspective is that the true meaning of the Feast of Tabernacles will be fulfilled when Messiah Jesus gathers the "harvest" of His children unto Himself.(10)
In his book The Hebrew Passover and Jewish Holidays, the late Dr. Charles Halff, founder of CJF Ministries, summed it up as follows: :The Feast of Tabernacles points to the day when the world will be at rest. Israel will be at rest because she will be in her own land. The Church will be at rest because we will be with Messiah Jesus. And the nations will be at rest because Satan will be bound in the bottomless pit, and Jesus the Messiah will be ruler of the world at that time" (p.29).(10)
During the Feast of Tabernacles there was a great ceremony called the "Illumination of the Temple," which involved the ritual lighting of four golden oil-fed lamps in the Court of Women. These lamps were huge candelabras (75 feet high) lighted in the temple at night to remind the people of the pillar of fire that had guided Israel in their wilderness journey. All night long the light shone their brilliance, it is said, illuminating the entire city.
In celebration and anticipation, the holiest of Israel's men danced and sang psalms of joy and praise before the Lord. This festival was a reminder that God had promised to send the Light, to a sin-darkened world. God promised to send the Messiah to renew Israel's glory, release them from bondage, and restore their joy. Imagine that you are in ancient Jerusalem during the Feast of Tabernacles. Visualize seeing these massive menorahs giving a tremendous amount of light. Now imagine the impact of the words said by Jesus in the Temple courtyard when he announced, "I am the Light of the world" (John 9:5).
Jesus is the Light, the source of illumination to bring the lost out of darkness. Jesus declared himself to be the Light of the world. It is not clear from the text when this incident happened, but it was some time between the Feast of Tabernacles and the Feast of Dedication (Hanukkah); both of these celebrations focused on light.(13)
Our bodies are temporary just like the Sukkah was temporary. God dwelt with the Jews in the desert and the Holy Spirit dwells inside of us.
Jesus is God tabernacling among men and women.
Some Bible scholars believe that this holiday is the real birthday of Jesus. God is said to have dwelled (tabernacled) with the Jews as they wandered for 40 years in the desert. How appropriate it would be if our Messiah was born during this feast. This would bring insightful meaning to the Messianic name Emanuel, which means God is with us, prophesied by Isaiah (Isa.7:14). More can be learned concerning this point of view by reading Was Messiah Born During The Feast Of Tabernacles?
There is also believed to be a connection between Hanukkah and Sukkot. See Was Messiah Conceived At Hanukkah?
There is another tradition that Sukkot is the concluding holiday of the judgment period and Hoshana Rabba is the culminating day. The Lulav is the symbol of victory and vindication on the judgment day. There is particular emphasis on the contest between the nations of the world and Israel. Rabbi Ovin said: "When two men appear before a judge, we know not who won. When one emerges with palm branches in his hand, we know that the verdict was in his favor. Israel and the nations of the world come before the Almighty on Rosh HaShana to exchange mutual charges. We do not know who won. However when Israel comes out with Lulav in hand, we know that the verdict was in its favor." (Vayikra Rabba 30)(2)
There is a tradition the Messiah will teach six mitzvot to the nations of the world, among these the Sukkah and the Lulav (Shochar Tov, Ps.21).
Zechariah Chapter 14 prophesies about this holiday. He writes when the Messiah comes, after there is judgments against the nations that come up against Israel, this holiday of Sukkot (Feast of Tabernacles) will become something that all the remaining nations celebrate.
Prophetically, Sukkot points not only to past fulfilled prophecies but also points ahead to future prophecy that will be fulfilled with Jesus second coming.
Zechariah 8:3 teaches us that someday God will once again dwell with us in Jerusalem.
The Messiah's presence in the Feast of Tabernacles is also found in the rite of the Water Libation.This ceremony was handed down as part of the Oral Law (Mishnah) and was known also as "Nissuch Ha Mayim." This is a must read and ties Jesus into the Gospel of John.(14) The poring out of the water was also related to God pouring out His Holy Spirit.
Another sign of Jesus the Messiah being part of the Feast of Tabernacles is what is commonly called His Triumphant Entry (Zechariah 9:9) found in all four Gospels. This also shows another connection between Passover and Sukkot.
The Earth as a Sukkah. In the end, the entire planet earth will become a Sukkah where God dwells (Rev. 21:3-4).
Some believe that Revelation 7:9 gives a glimpse into a Heavenly Tabernacle Celebration when it says: After these things I looked, and behold, a great multitude which no one cold number, of all nations, tribes, peoples, and tounges, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, with palm branches in their hands.
The Feast of Tabernacles is a foretaste of the Messianic Age, when God's dwelling Presence will be with mankind. This can be seen in Zechariah 14, which describes the Messianic Age, and specifically notes that the Feast of Tabernacles will be observed during that time.(15)
We know our Messiah was made manifest into a temporary body when He came to earth. Is it possible He also was put into a temporary dwelling? The fields would have been dotted with Sukkot during this harvest time to temporary shelter animals. The Hebrew word “stable” is called a Sukkoth (Gen. 33:17).(13)
There is an old tradition that the amount of rain, which is to fall during the year, is decreed on Sukkot (Rosh Hashanah 16a). Praying for rain was an important part of this holiday
The Jerusalem Talmud teaches that it was at the festival of the Water Libation that Jonah received his revelation, because he was so overcome with joy.(16)
A Future Feast Of Tabernacles Celebration In The Millennium Kingdom?
Zech. 14:15-19 teaches that during the Millennial Kingdom reign of Messiah, any nation or family that fails to come to Jerusalem to observe Sukkot will receive no rain for their lands.
Then it will come about that any who are left of all the nations that went against Jerusalem will go up from year to year to worship the King, the Lord of hosts, and to celebrate the Feast of Booths (Zech.14:16).
Help someone build or decorate a Sukkah. If you belong to a church it could be fun to have your own Sukkah and as a congregation, learn about your Jewish roots and the Messiah in this holiday. If you build one for yourself, it is considered a good deed to invite others. Perhaps this will give you an opportunity to discuss God's protection today. Perhaps a prayer to God to be thankful for reminding you of all His material blessings would be in order. You may be able to discuss Isa. 7:14 and talk about what the Hebrew name Emanuel means.
Articles of interest that reflect upon the Feast of Tabernacles include:
This holiday is filled with seven joyous commandments; They are the four species, the Sukkah, the Chagigag sacrifice, and the sacrifice of rejoicing (Vayikra Rabba 30:2).
There is an interpretation in the Talmud that suggest that the Sukkot used by Israel during their 40 years of wandering was made out of the actual Cloud of Glory that God produced to lead them through the desert.(17)
The holiday of Hanukkah may have been a Late Celebration Of The Feast Of Tabernacles.
For a list of future holidays dates check the Master Calendar Table.
1). Chosen People Ministries Newsletter September 2008.
2). Some of the information from this page came fromThe Biblical And Historical Background Of The Jewish Holy Days, by Abraham P. Bloch. It is copyrighted material and was used with permission of the publisher, KTAV Publishing, 900 Jefferson Street. Box 6249, Hoboken, NJ 07030-0102
3). The Temple Mount and Land of Israel Faithful Movement Feast of Tabernacle Celebration Notes 11-13-2008
4). Chabad of Peoria Jewish Art Calendar 5765 (2005).
5).The Fall Feasts of Israel by Mitch and Zhava Galser.(With Chosen People Ministries)
6). Arutz 7 Editor firstname.lastname@example.org 10-6-2006
7). The Family Treasury of Jewish Holiday by Malka Drucker.
8). Mashiach, The Principle of Mashiach and the Messianic Era in Jewish Law and Tradition by Jacob Immanuel Schochet (New Expanded Edition) p.47 quoting Bereishit Rabba 63:8 and Vayikra Rabba 30:16.
9). Midwest Messianic Center. Jan. 2007 Newsletter.
10). Violette Berger - Messianic Perspectives - CJF Newsletter Jan/Feb. 2005
11). Israel My Glory ( A Friends of Israel Ministries publication) Written by Steve Herzig Sept./Oct. 2008 p.17.
12). A Rabbi Looks At The Last Days by Rabbi Jonathan Bernis pp.177-181.
13).This information was used by permission from a ministry known as Heart of Wisdom. http://BiblicalHolidays.com. This web site offers many insightful remarks concerning Jewish holidays and is recommended.
14). The Feasts of Israel by Bruce Scott.(With Friends of Israel Ministries)
15). Messiah Magazine #87 published by First Fruits of Zion, Devarim 5765 (2005).
17). The Soncino Talmud, - Mas. Sukkah 11b.