Aaronic Benediction From Numbers 22-26
The LORD bless you and keep you;
the LORD make his face shine upon you and be gracious to you;
the LORD turn his face toward you and give you peace.
View A Hebrew Version Of The Aaronic Benediction
Al Chet: A prayer said during the Day of Atonement worship service that asks for forgiveness in the plural sense for our sin.
Aliyah: A call to come up and recite the blessing over the Torah reading - It is considered a great honor.
Bet Hamikdash: The Holy Temple of Jerusalem. This term can be used for both the First Temple and the Second Temple. It can also be used when talking about the Third Temple that is still to come.
Christian: A Christian is a person who believes in Jesus Christ as the Messiah and chooses to follow His teachings. Christians believe He died to pay the penalty of their own personal sins there by "saving" them from the eternal separation from God. Christians recognize that Jesus, is not only the Messiah but is God Himself, in the form of man. Jesus is one of three persons (the other two are the Father and the Holy Spirit) that make up the compound unity (often referred to as a tri-unity or trinity) of the one and only living God. For more on Jesus as the Messiah check out The Messiah Jesus page.
"Christians are the elect (See Doctrine Of Election), chosen by God solely by His sovereign, loving purpose, apart from any human merit or wisdom."(6)
End Times: Consists of events such as the Rapture, the rise of Antichrist, the salvation of Israel, the seal, trumpet, and bowl judgments, the Second Coming, the battle of Armageddon, the sheep and goat judgments, the binding of Satan, the Millennial Kingdom, the loosing of Satan and subsequent worldwide rebellion at the end of the Millennium, the Great White Throne judgment, and the new heavens and the new earth.(11) Learn more about Living In The End Times?
Eternal Light: This light is to burn all the time. The light produced by the flame assumed a spiritual, symbolic meaning. This light that was kindled in the sanctuary was to testify that the light of the Shekinah is in the midst of Israel (Men. 86b).
Faith: Faith is trust in God's power, promise and plan. It is the unwavering belief that God is completely trustworthy in all that He says and does.
Faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen (Hebrews 11:1).
First, believers can trust God's Person. He will never deviate from His nature as revealed in scripture, but will always act consistently with His attributes. The writer of Hebrews declared of God the Son, "Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and forever (Heb.13:8)."
Second, believers can trust in God's power. God rhetorically asked Abraham, "Is anything too difficult for the Lord? (Gen. 18:14 also look at Jer. 32:17&27)."
Third, believers can trust God's promises "God is not a man, that He should lie... (Numbers 23:19)".
Fourth, believers can trust God's sovereign plan, which can neither be halted nor hindered. Through Isaiah the prophet, God declared, "I act and who can reverse it?" (Isaiah 43:13).(10)
Gematria: In the Hebrew alphabet each letter is assigned a numerical value. Therefore every word has a numerical value. Gematria is the process of adding up the numerical values of the letters that make up a word.
Gemara: is taken from the Aramaic word for “completion”. It is a collection of commentaries during the third, fourth, and fifth centuries. It includes law, folklore, Bible commentary, science, theology, and legends of classical Judaism.
Geulah: Often used in reference to the Messianic Redemption.
Glorification: The eternal glory that comes with the glorious coming of the Lord for His beloved child.(6)
Grace: Grace is God's unmerited favor to the sinner. Grace is God's undeserved goodness and benevolence granted to those who in no way deserve it. Grace is essential not only for salvation, but also for endurance (Proverbs 3:34), for service (Romans 12:6), for growth (Hebrews 13:9) and for giving (2 Cor. 8:1).(13)
Haftorah: The haftorah is a portion of Scripture taken from the prophets, which, in the Jewish canon, includes Joshua, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel, and 1 and 2 Kings. The Haftorah is said to have developed during the rule of Antiochus Epiphanes (175-164 b.c.), the Seleucid king who violently persecuted the Jewish people, forced Greek culture on them, desecrated the Temple, and forbade them to read the Torah. The rabbis substituted haftorah readings that corresponded in content to the Torah portions in order to be able to practice their faith. Sometimes a haftorah is read at the end of the Torah reading service. Some Jewish boys and girls chant or sing the haftorah from the pulpit during their bar and bat mitzvah ceremonies. Source: Israel My Glory published by the Friends of Israel.
Haggadah: A book developed to help one conduct a Passover Seder meal. It is also helpful as a guide in retelling the redemption story. It is still used today in Jewish homes. There are many different versions but all accomplish the goal of discussing the exodus out of Egypt. The Hebrew word comes from the same root as (shew) in Exodus 13:8
Hakkafot: "circuits" around the synagogue, when the Torah scrolls are paraded around the sanctuary several times. (Singular, hakkafah).
Hallel: (Psalm 113-118) The Structure of Hallel. We begin Hallel by reciting Psalm 113, a psalm of introductory praises. In Psalm 114, King David shows how God's providence freed the Jews from Egyptian bondage and made their survival possible. In Psalm 115, we appeal for God's assistance. In Psalm 116, we plead with God for survival. In Psalm 117, the shortest of all the Psalms, we invite the nations of the world to join our songs of thanksgiving for our redemption. Finally, Psalm 118 can be interpreted in two different ways. David perhaps personally thanks God for his survival, or perhaps David represents the Jewish people and therefore the Psalm is a song of thanksgiving for the entire nation of Israel.(5)
Hametz: (Chametz) The leaven in the bread that causes it to rise while being baked. It is used in a negative way throughout the Bible as a symbol of sin. The one exception to this would be in Matthew 13:33 where it is a symbol of growth and expansion. Chametz is any food and drink made from wheat, barley, rye, oats, spelt or their derivatives. (More On Hametz)
Hanukkiyah/Menorah (for Hanukkah use): Hanukkiyah is a Hebrew term used to describe a nine branch candleholder. Hanukkiyah has been translated as "menorah and as to begin again with God". This menorah represents a typical menorah used for Hanukkah. Notice it has room for eight regular candles plus a candle that is raised up higher than the rest for a total of nine candles. This candle is known as the shamash (servant) candle and is used to light the rest of the candles. When counting candles at Hanukkah time the shamash candle is exempt. (i.e. on the first night of Hanukkah when only one candle is lit there are actually two candles lit. The shamash candle and then the shamash is used to light the first candle). There are many different menorah designs today. There are a few guidelines that are used which allow a menorah to be acceptable for the Hanukkah celebration. The Shamash candle must be higher than the rest of the candles. The other eight candles can be the same height or different heights but the shamash must be the tallest one. The candles must be far enough apart so that the flames do not blend together. A menorah can be made out of anything (preferably things that do not burn). Some menorahs burn a traditional oil instead of a candle. Weather burning candles or oil the flame should burn for at least 30 minutes. Some have light bulbs that you screw in for each night of Hanukkah although this is questionable as to fulfilling the candle lighting part of the holiday. When lighting candles every day of Hanukkah a total of 44 candles are used.
Justification: By repenting and embracing Christ's death and resurrection, a sinner is considered "not guilty and right before the law" because the penalty has already been served through the Messiah's death. It is a legal term showing no conviction. It is the opposite of being declared guilty and condemned.
Ketz: Sometimes used to mean the "Messianic End." Refers to a period of time, still in the future. Sometimes referred to as "Geulah."
Kol Nidre: " All vows" a prayer chanted on the eve of the Day of Atonement, asking for absolution from all oaths, if they were made during a time of duress or impulsively.
Kotel: The Wailing wall. Also known as the Western Wall. This is considered to be the last remaining wall of the Second Temple. It is located on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, Israel. It is considered to be the holiest place in Judaism.
Last Days: This term is not necessarily limited to the period of the Tribulation. The apostle Peter, for example, used the term in Acts 2 to refer to the period he was living in, and that was nearly two thousand years ago. Likewise, consider the words of another apostle in 1 John 2:18: "Dear children, the last hour is here. You have heard that the Antichrist is coming, and already many such antichrist have appeared. From this we know that the last hour has come." Again, John was writing nearly two thousand years ago. It's important to note that the Hebrew term translated as "the last days" can also be translated as "in the distant future" (NLT) or "in days to come" (NIV). Thus it is reasonable to conclude that the term the last days refers to an indeterminate period of time leading up to the second coming of Jesus Christ. This period includes - but is not limited to - the seven years of Tribulation.(16) L'shanah Tova: A common greeting around the time of Rosh Hashanah meaning have a good new year.
Lulav and Etrog: A Lulav is a combination of a palm branch, 3 myrtle branches and two willow branches. An etrog is a Mediterranean citrus fruit that looks similar to a lemon. (View Photo Of Lulav And Etrog.
Mahzor: A holiday prayer book.
Menorah (for Temple use): A menorah is a candlestick holder that holds seven or nine candles and is used for Jewish worship. This menorah is not a typical Hanukkah menorah. It resembles the first menorah that was used for the first tabernacle built when the Jews wandered in the desert for 40 years with Moses. This was also the design of the one used in the first temple period. It is not a legal Hanukkah menorah because it does not have enough candle holders on it. A Hanukkah menorah must have nine. This menorah from the temple only has seven. In the holy place of the Tabernacle (mishkan), a seven-branched lamp stand (menorah) held seven individual lamps (nerot) that represented God's perfect light. The seven lamps of the menorah contained pure olive oil inside almond shaped containers, possible suggesting the seven eyes of the LORD mentioned in Zechariah 4:2. Together, the menorah and its seven lamps were referred to as the Perpetual Lamp (near tamid), a source of light that illuminated the Bread of Presence (lechem panim) and the Altar of Incense (mizbeach haketoret) within the Holy Place. The lamp was to be attended to every morning and evening during the time of the burning of the sweet incense (symbolizing prayer), and was never to be extinguished (Lev. 24:2).(4)
Hanukkiyah/Menorah (for Hanukkah use): Hanukkiyah is a Hebrew term used to describe a nine branch candleholder. Hanukkiyah has been translated as "menorah and as to begin again with God." This menorah represents a typical menorah used for Hanukkah. Notice it has room for eight regular candles plus a candle that is raised up higher than the rest for a total of nine candles. This raised up candle is known as the shamash (servant) candle and is used to light the rest of the candles. When counting candles at Hanukkah time the shamash candle is exempt. (i.e. on the first night of Hanukkah when only one candle is lit there are actually two candles lit. The shamash candle and then the shamash is used to light the first candle). There are many different menorah designs today. The traditional menorah is shown on the left of this page. A Messianic menorah that promotes the messianic theme is shown on the right of this page. There are a few guidelines that are used which allow a menorah to be acceptable for the Hanukkah celebration. The Shamash candle must be higher than the rest of the candles. The other eight candles can be the same height or different heights but the shamash must be the tallest one. The candles must be far enough apart so that the flames do not blend together. A menorah can be made out of anything (preferably things that do not burn). Some menorahs burn a traditional oil instead of a candle. Weather burning candles or oil the flame should burn for at least 30 minutes. Some have light bulbs that you screw in for each night of Hanukkah although this is questionable as to fulfilling the candle lighting obligation part of the holiday. When lighting candles every night of Hanukkah a total of 44 candles are used.
Messiah: The word "Messiah" means anointed with oil. Often referred to in connection with Jesus Christ. Kings (1 Kings 1:39) and High Priests (Lev. 4:3) and Prophets (Isa. 61:1) were often anointed with oil. Jesus the Messiah serves in all three positions. He is the King of all Kings, a High Priest in the order of Melchizedek and the Prophet who was greater that Moses written about in Deut. 18:18.
The Greek equivalent to Messiah is "Christ." Therefore when you see the name Jesus Christ it is in reference to Jesus the Messiah.
The Torah, the Prophets and the Psalms all teach about one who would come, the anointed one, the Messiah, as a saviour. The New Testament confirms that this person that the Old Testament teaches about is Jesus Christ.
Mezuzah: A small parchment scroll inscribed with Deut 6:4-9 and 11:13-21 and the name Shaddai and placed in a case fixed to the doorpost by some Jewish families as a sign and reminder of their faith. Often considered a physical reminder that we have a choice each day to either walk in His way, or ours; to teach our children to love and fear the LORD, or disregard Him; to sanctify His name with our life, or bring it reproach.(1) A Mezuzah should at the least be affixed to the front door. Some put a Mezuzah at the entrance of every room except for a bathroom. It should be placed on the right doorpost as one enters. It should be in a slanted position with the top pointed to the inside of the room. It should be in the upper third of the doorpost height (shoulder high). It should be placed on the outer 3.2 inches of the doorpost width.(2)
Midrash: This is a study of a topic of Biblical nature. It may include a story that is made up to teach a point or lesson. It may also include a story that is said to be oral law, that is a story that Moses may have handed down. Many midrashes come from the second temple era or shortly after its destruction.
The body of literature known as midrash is generally divided into aggadic (narrative) and halakhic (legal) midrash. Collections that contain mostly stories, parables, and homilies are classified as midrash aggadah, while collections focused primarily on the derivation of law are called midrash halakhah.(19)
The largest volumes of midrash aggadah are often referred to collectively as Midrash Rabbah. This name is actually a misnomer, as this group of texts comprises ten unrelated collections, compiled over the course of eight or more centuries. Each volume comments on one of the five books of the Torah (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy) or of the five Megillot (Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther).(19)
Millennial Kingdom: A 1000 year period of time when the Messiah will rule as king from Jerusalem. There are three different views as to when this kingdom will take place.
Amillennialism: Means "no millennium". The proponents of this perspective believe that millennial prophecies cannot be considered literal and thus would need to be fulfilled in non literal ways.
PostMillennialism: States that the return of Christ will come after the millennium. With the coming of world wars, the PostMillennialism interpretation declined in influence. Today the position is being revived through a movement called Christian Reconstructionism (also known as Dominica Theology or Theonomy.
Premillennialism: Teaches that the 1000 year kingdom will follow the second coming of Christ and will be a literal 1000 year reign of Christ on earth.
Mishna: A collection of rabbinical commentaries on the oral law compiled into one authoritive body of religious thought developed in between the year 100 A.D. and 210 A.D.
Mosaic Law: The written copy of the law given to Moses by God. This includes the 10 commandments. Usually considered the first five books of the Old Testament (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy). The majority of the law is in the book of Leviticus.
Olam: The Hebrew word olam means in the far distance. When looking off in the far distance it is difficult to make out any details and what is beyond that horizon cannot be seen. This concept is the olam. The word olam is also used for time for the distant past or the distant future as a time that is difficult to know or perceive. This word is frequently translated as eternity or forever but in the English language it is misunderstood to mean a continual span of time that never ends. In the Hebrew mind it is simply what is at or beyond the horizon, a very distant time. A common phrase in the Hebrew is "l'olam va'ed" and is usually translated as "forever and ever" but in the Hebrew it means "to the distant horizon and again" meaning "a very distant time and even further" and is used to express the idea of a very ancient or future time.(18)
This word is often thought of as meaning forever. However, the Jewish commentator Rashi realized that this is not an absolute definition. Sometimes the Hebrew word "OLAM" can mean "a considerable time."
Omer: The Rabbis, contrary to the Septuagint and later non-Jewish translators, consider the word "'omer" as designating the measure, which is one-tenth of an ephah (comp. Ex. xvi. 36; A. V. "omer"); therefore they hold that the wave-offering did not consist of a sheaf but was an 'omer of grain (see Rashi to Lev. xxiii. 10).(Jewish Encyclopedia) • A dry measure containing, according to the Rabbis, two quarts, but according to Josephus, three and one-half quarts (Ex 16:16-18,36).
Oral Law: The Oral Law is composed of different commentaries by rabbi's, that were handed down by word of mouth from generation to generation. Eventually, they were written down.
Peace: Peace is the result of Grace, which is God's unmerited favor to the sinner.
Rapture: The word rapture is from the Latin word which translates from the Greek word harpazo which means "to suddenly remove or snatch away." Other places the word is used is in 2 Corinthians 12:2-4 when Paul has his "third heaven experience", and in Revelation 12:5 concerning Jesus ascension to heaven. (The Popular Encyclopedia of Bible Prophecy).
The rapture is an event that some Christians believe is still to come. It involves all believers who have put their faith and trust in what Jesus did on the cross including His resurrection, and confess the He is their Lord (Christians). This includes both those who have already died and those who are currently living. The dead in Christ will be resurrected first, followed by those who are alive, together, caught up in the sky with Jesus. When the rapture occurs, all Christians are miraculously removed from earth. They will be raptured or "caught up" in the sky where Jesus will be waiting for them. This all happens at the speed of the "twinkling of an eye." Since Jesus remains in the sky and doesn't come down to earth at this time, this event is NOT to be considered His second return to earth. That comes later.
There are different opinions as to when and how the rapture will occur. Here are three of them.
1) Pre-Tribulation Rapture: Refers to the rapture of the church before the seven year Tribulation period begins. Believers in Jesus are "caught up" or raptured in the sky with Jesus and sit out the entire seven years of tribulation. (Also known as the Time of Jacob's Trouble and The 70th week of Daniel 9).
2) Mid-Tribulation Rapture: Refers to the rapture of the church in the middle (3 and 1/2 years) of the seven year Tribulation period. Believers in Jesus are "caught up" or raptured in the sky with Jesus after living the first half of the seven years of tribulation on earth. (Also known as the Time of Jacob's Trouble and The 70th week of Daniel 9)
3) Post-Tribulation Rapture: Refers to the rapture of the church after the seven year tribulation period ends. Believers in Jesus are "caught up" or raptured in the sky with Jesus after going through the entire seven year tribulation along with the non-believers. (Also known as the Time of Jacob's Trouble and The 70th week of Daniel 9)
Righteousness: The complete faith that a person has believing all the promises given unto them through the prophets is sometimes referred to as tzedakah (righteousness). See Genesis 15:6 "He believed in G-d. and He accounted it to him as tzedakah" (Gen. 15:6). (15) The hebrew word used here (tzedakah) is more commonly used today to refer to charity even though its root (tzadik) is still often used to describe a righteous person.
Salvation: The Grace of God that causes us to be forgiven of our sin. You cannot get it or keep it through your behavior, although your behavior should reflect an attitude of gratitude because of God's saving grace.(17)
Sanctification: Trying to live a holy life in obedience to scripture and in the power of the Holy Spirit.(6) The process of being separated from sin and set apart to God's holiness.(9) Sanctification comes only through God's sovereign grace, though not apart from human obedience.(12)
San Hedrin Court: The Sanhedrin was a religious-legal assembly of 71 sages (odd number so there could never be a tie vote) including the High Priest that convened during the Holy Temple period and for several centuries afterwards. It was the highest Jewish judicial tribunal in the Land of Israel. The great court used to convene in one of the Temple’s chambers in Jerusalem, possible the Hall of Hewn Stone. For recent news on the San Hedrin read Re-establishment Of The Sanhedrin Court:
Septuagint: The Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures. It was initiated in the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus. (285-246 B. C.). Legend has it that 6 Jews from each of the 12 tribes independently wrote a copy of the Old Testament from Hebrew into Greek. When finished all 72 copies were the same showing God's approval with the interpretation. Septuagint is Greek for 70 which represents the 72 authors unity.
Shofar: A ram's horn blown during the worship service on Rosh Hashanah and at the conclusion of the Day of Atonement.
Sukkah: Hebrew for small booth. A temporary shelter built before the Feast of Tabernacles so that a person can eat and sleep outside. Could also mean stable (Gen.33:17).
Talmud: The Talmud contains both civil and ceremonial law as interpreted through Torah. It is an authoritative text of Jewish tradition comprising the Mishnah and Gemara. Talmud is a commentary on the Mishna. The term 'Gemara' means addition; The Gemara is an addition to the Mishna. Interestingly, although there is only one Mishna, there are two gemara's, each developed by many rabbis over a few centuries. One gemara was developed in Israel, and is called the Yerushalmi (Jerusalem); the other was developed in Babylonia, and is called the Bavli (Babylonian). You never find the gemara printed by itself. It is always printed along with the Mishna. When you have the Israeli gemara and the Mishna printed together, it is called Talmud Yerushalmi (or the Jerusalem Talmud, or the Palestinian Talmud, or the Talmud of the Land of Israel.)
Gemara: Taken from the Aramaic word for “completion.” It is a collection of commentaries during the third, fourth, and fifth centuries. It includes law, folklore, Bible commentary, science, theology, and legends of classical Judaism.
Mishna: A collection of rabbinical commentaries on the oral law compiled into one authoritive body of religious thought developed in between the year 100 A.D. and 210 A.D.
Mishna is a code of traditional Jewish Law also known as the Oral Torah. Mishna means repetition. It comes from the way it was learned by the Jewish people. Orthodox Jews believe it originated at Mt. Sinai but was written down later. The Gemara, is the commentary on the Mishna.
Targum: In the Synagogues many centuries ago, it was common to take the Scriptures and amplify the text to help impart the fuller meaning to the congregations. These amplifications, or paraphrased translations, were called Targumim (Targum in the singular).
Tellos: This Greek word can have different meanings including end, fulfillment, aim, termination, and goal. It is often associated with the end or fulfillment of Mosaic Law.
Temple Mount: (Kotel) : The Wailing wall. Also known as the Western Wall. This is considered to be the last remaining wall of the Second Temple. It is located on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, Israel.
It is considered to be the holiest place in Judaism.
Teshuvah: Repentance. A Simple-though sincere-thought of regretting misdeeds with determination to better our ways.(14)
Tetragrammaton: (YHVH) Name of God. Sometimes pronounced Yahweh or Y(J)ehovah. Considered to be too holy to pronounce by Judaism. Tetragrammaton means four letter name. Represented by capital "LORD" in most English Bibles.
Times of the Gentiles: Times of the Gentiles, this biblical age consists of that long period of time extending from the destruction of Solomon's temple by the Babylonians in 586 BC until the return of the Messiah at the conclusion of the Tribulation Period. The period of time is marked by Gentile domination of Jerusalem and the Jewish people. This "trampling under foot does not preclude temporary times of Jewish sovereignty and self-government, as experienced during the times of the Hasmoneans (168-63 BC), and as we are experiencing today with the institution of the modern State of Israel.(7)
Torah: A scroll of parchment containing the first five books of Moses (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy). They are written or scribed by hand. Torah means teaching or instruction. Torah can also mean doctrine or law from a legal view. Encyclopedia Judaica has a much broader term for Torah "the whole corpus of Jewish traditional law from the Bible to the latest development."
Tribulation period: This is a seven year period of time where things are prophesied to be the worst time on earth. During this time there will be major wars, famine, death and satanic activity. Also refers to the time of Jacob's trouble. At the end of this seven year period the Messiah come to Jerusalem and saves Israel.
Tzedakah: The complete faith that a person has believing all the promises given unto them through the prophets is sometimes referred to as tzedakah (righteousness). See Genesis 15:6 "He believed in G-d. and He accounted it to him as tzedakah" (Gen. 15:6).(15) The hebrew word used here (tzedakah) is more commonly used today to refer to charity even though its root (tzadik) is still often used to describe a righteous person.(15) This passage from Genesis 15:6 also teaches us that Abraham's righteousness came through him believing (faith) and not through his physical actions (works).
Yom Tov: A day designated as a holiday, literally meaning "good day."
Zionist: A person who believes in and wants to promote the establishment and security of a Jewish state in the ancient land of Zion now called Israel.
Zionism: Is the name most frequently used of anyone, Jew or Gentile, who desires the Jews to own the land of Israel.(8)
Zohar:The Zohar (Hebrew Zohar "Splendor, radiance, light ") is widely considered the most important work of Kabbalah, Jewish mysticism. It is a mystical commentary on the Torah(five books of Moses), written in medieval Aramaic and medieval Hebrew. It contains a mystical discussion of the nature of God, the origin and structure of the universe, the nature of souls, sin, redemption, good and evil, and related topics.
The Zohar is not one book, but a group of books. These books include scriptural interpretations as well as material on theosophic theology, mythical cosmogony, mystical psychology, and what some would call anthropology.(3)
For more information on the Zohar check out this article found on the Jewish Virtual Library.
These definitions are only meant to give an initial understanding of some terms.
1). Jewish Voice Today May/June 1996
2). Chabad of Peoria Jewish Art Calendar 5766.
3). Jewish Virtual Library (http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/Zohar.html)
4). Hebrew Lesson by John Parsons from Zola Levitt- Feb. 2006
6). The John MacArthur New Testament Commentary on 1&2 Thessalonians p. 20.
7). Hadavar Messianic Ministries. December 2006 Newsletter.
8). Midnight Call: March 2007 p.25.
9). The John MacArthur New Testament Commentary on 1&2 Thessalonians p.103.
10). The John MacArthur New Testament Commentary on 1&2 Thessalonians p. 161-162.
11). The MacArthur New Testament Commentary 1& 2 Thessalonians p.142.
12). The John MacArthur New Testament Commentary on 1&2 Thessalonians p. 254.
13). The John MacArthur New Testament Commentary on 1&2 Thessalonians p. 320.
14). Mashiach, The Principle of Mashiach and the Messianic Era in Jewish Law and Tradition by Jacob Immanuel Schochet (New Expanded Edition) p.45.
15). Mashiach, The Principle of Mashiach and the Messianic Era in Jewish Law and Tradition by Jacob Immanuel Schochet (New Expanded Edition) p.57.
16). Epicenter by Joel C. Rosenberg p.252.
17). Charles Stanley